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Leverage More Adequate and Equitable School Funding
Community Schools as an Effective School Improvement Strategy: A Review of the Evidence (LPI)

This LPI report reveals the strong evidence base for community schools and details successful dedicated funding strategies for their implementation.

The Design of the Rhode Island School Funding Formula (Center for American Progress )

This report discusses how Rhode Island changed its funding formula despite being in a recession in order to distribute funds more equitably across the state to serve students with the greatest needs.

The Design of the Rhode Island School Funding Formula: Toward a Coherent System of Allocating State Aid to Public Schools (Education Department, Brown University )

This 2015 presentation by Kenneth Wong, Professor at Brown University, details how Rhode Island developed and implemented a more equitable school funding formula.

Does School Spending Matter? The New Literature on an Old Question (Northwestern University )

This 2018 literature review conducted by Northwestern University Professor Kirabo Jackson finds compelling evidence of a causal relationship between school spending and improved student outcomes.

The Early Childhood Workforce Index 2018 (Center for the Study of Child Care Employment)

This comprehensive report provides information on early childcare salaries as well as policy recommendations to improve the quality of both the workforce and job conditions.

The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes: Evidence from School Finance Reforms (The Quarterly Journal of Economics)

This peer-reviewed article from The Quarterly Journal of Economics studies the long-term effects of school finance reforms on student economic outcomes.

Funding Formula Summary (Rhode Island State Department of Education)

This one-page document provides a summary of Rhode Island's funding formula, which was enacted in 2010 in the midst of the Great Recession.

The Great Recession Badly Hurt Kids’ Schooling; Today’s Recession Could Do Much Worse (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities)

This blog from May 2020 discusses the dire need for additional federal investment to offset instructional losses, which will be far worse than the losses experienced during the Great Recession.

How Money Matters for Schools (LPI)

This 2018 report by LPI Senior Fellow Bruce Baker, Professor at Rutgers University, shows how money matters by reviewing the literature on school finance reforms.

The Impact of the COVID-19 Recession on Teaching Positions (LPI)

This blog from April 2020 by LPI Senior Researcher and Policy Analyst Michael Griffith estimates the impact of COVID-19 on teaching positions across the country and highlights the need for additional federal resources.

Investing for Student Success: Lessons From State School Finance Reforms (LPI)

This 2019 report by LPI's CEO Linda Darling-Hammond shows the importance of equitable state school funding, and it discusses how four different states implemented new equity-based funding formulas.

Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey (US Bureau of Labor Statistics )

This data set from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics contains labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey, including the national unemployment rate.

LCFF Student Equity Need Index Methodology (Advancement Project California)

This appendix explains how a Student Equity Need Index (SENI) is calculated and used to distribute funding more equitably to those populations most in need.

Lead With Equity: What California’s Leaders Must Do Next to Advance Student Learning During COVID-19 (Policy Analysis for California Education)

This policy brief provides research-based policy recommendations to ensure adequate monitoring, support, and resources that prioritize equity in learning for state leaders in California and other states.

Leveraging Resources Through Community Schools: The Role of Technical Assistance (LPI)

This July 2020 blog post discusses several community schools examples across three districts, highlighting the role that central offices should play in providing technical assistance, including how to leverage multiple funding streams and partners.

Making School Budgets Whole and Equitable During and After COVID-19 (LPI)

Michael DiNapoli Jr. outlines the magnitude of need with cost estimates and strategies that policymakers can use for their upcoming school year budgets.

Making the Grade 2019: How Fair Is School Funding in Your State? (Education Law Center )

This research brief from 2019 grades each state on the fairness of its school funding formulas and related finance systems.

Maryland Overview (The Nation’s Report Card )

This report examines Maryland students' math and reading scores, showing gains in both subjects in the decade following the state's 2002 school funding reforms.

Money and Freedom: The Impact of California’s School Finance Reform on Academic Achievement and the Composition of District Spending (Getting Down to Facts II)

This brief with accompanying video highlights how California's Local Control Funding Formula sent more money to students with the greatest need and improved math student achievement.

Quality Counts 2020 (ED Week)

The annual Quality Counts reports from Education Week dive deeply into the specifics of state school funding, and they rate states in terms of equity and access.

Restart & Recovery: Considerations for Teaching & Learning Overview (Council of Chief State School Officers)

This resource includes strategies and clear questions for states to consider as they work to support districts to adapt instruction in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Rhode Island Overview (The Nation’s Report Card )

This report card contains Rhode Island students' math and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), showing gains in both subjects following the state's 2010 school funding reforms.

The Road to High-Quality Early Learning: Lessons From the States (LPI)

This 2016 report analyzes early childhood education policies in four states and provides recommendations on how to strengthen early childhood education through multiple funding sources and a broad-based coalition.

The Social Safety Net: The Gaps that COVID-19 Spotlights (Brookings)

This article by Brookings scholar Henry Aaron describes how COVID-19 exacerbated existing gaps in the social safety net and emphasizes the weaknesses of relying primarily on unemployment insurance to combat this crisis.

Sound Basic Education for All: An Action Plan for North Carolina (WestEd)

This action plan provides recommendations for the state of North Carolina to achieve compliance with the State Supreme Court requirement to provide every student equal opportunity for a sound basic education.

State Education Funding: The Poverty Equation (FutureEd)

This article delves into the reasoning behind poverty measures in funding formulas and shows how different definitions of poverty (at either the student or district level) can lead to more or less adequate funding of those most in need.

States Grappling With Hit to Tax Collections (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities)

This article discusses expected budget shortfalls on a state-by-state basis and is continually updated with new estimates.

Three Essays on Resources in Education (University of Michigan)

This dissertation examines the effect of educational resource distribution on student learning and achievement, focusing on the Abbott school finance reforms that funneled additional resources into low-wealth New Jersey school districts.

A Well-Educated Workforce Is Key to State Prosperity (Economic Policy Institute)

This article from August 2013 uses economic data to reveal the unique role that states have in incentivizing educational attainment; state education investments lead to higher wages and a higher tax base.

What Will It Take to Stabilize Schools in the Time of COVID-19? (LPI)

This blog by LPI Senior Researcher and Policy Analyst Michael Griffith from May 2020 provides a calculator to predict how much COVID-19 will cost schools through his analysis of state budgets.